# Study Session 9: Equity Valuation: Valuation Concepts

Hi, just need some help understanding the rationale behind CFAI reading 28 “Return Concepts” EOC questions #8-9 regarding bias of equity risk premium and return on equity estimates.

I don’t know if I’m allowed to copy/paste straight from CFAI text..

## PATHWISE VALUATION

CFA Curriculum; Vol 5; page 96; Exhibit 24. Can anyone please explain how those present values were calculated or which values were discounted to arrive at, for example, the PV of 95.72908 for Path 1? Thanks.

## FCFE question on depreciation / NCC

So FCFE = NI + NCC -FCInv -WCinv + net borrowing.

So if you have NI of 5, depreciation of 2, FCInv of 1, WCinv of 1 and 0 net borrowing, its pretty simple: 5+2-1-1+0 =5

However, some of the questions have a debt ratio and then the equation gets rewritten like this:

FCFE = NI -  (FCInv - depreciation)*(1-d/r) - (WCInv * (1-dr)) + net borrowing

## Swap rate vs Z spread

As per my understanding, both help measure the credit and liquidity risk in a swap transaction over a T-bill. While swap rate is calculated using the YTM, the Z spread is calculated using spot rates. I am trying to understand why we need them both if both help quantify the same thing? Also, spot rates can be derived from YTM (and vice versa..), how do we end up with different values of Z spread and swap rate? Shouldn’t they be the same?

## Economic value - book or market value?

To calculate economic profit, we deduct a capital cost from operating profit. Why do we use market value of debt and equity to calculate WACC, but then use the book value to calculate \$WACC. This seems inconsistent.

I don’t understand why book value is used at all. The \$WACC is an opportunity cost and book value is somewhat arbitrary. If the company has gone through M&A the book value will be higher compared to organic growth.

What is not arbitrary is market value, so why not use it?

## Equity Investments

An analyst is reviewing the valuation of DuPont as of the beginning of July 2013 when DuPont is selling for \$52.72. In the previous year, DuPont paid a \$1.70 dividend that the analyst expects to grow at a rate of 4 percent annually for the next four years. At the end of Year 4, the analyst expects the dividend to equal 35 percent of earnings per share and the trailing P/E for DuPont to be 13. If the required return on DuPont common stock is 9.0 percent, calculate the per-share value of DuPont common stock.

## Estimating Beta

How do you estimate beta for privately held shares with super voting rights in a public company.

Hi all,

## payout ratio

A textbook I’m reading on said

the payout ratio in stable growth has to be consistent: payout ratio = g/ROE

did the text book make a mistake? Isn’t g/ROE = retention rate?

does that mean in stable growth, retention rate = payout ratio = g/ROE?

## risk free rate

Hi guys - is there any rule of thumb I should know for choosing the risk free rate? I always assumed it was the long-term government bond yield but just had a topic test question then where you could choose between LT and short-term government bond yield for Fama French, and the answer was the short-term gov. bond yield with one of the incorrect options using the LT rate.

Feeling disconcerted at getting such a simple question wrong this late in the piece!

Any suggestions?

Thanks