If you don’t know anyone, you’re going to have to work super hard so that if you get an interview, you’ll be able to compete against either people who are just out of great schools with great gpa (not judging, your school and gpa are better than mine) or people with 1-2 years of experience, who get paid a minimal amount more than people just out of school. Not only do you have to develop those skills on your own while not being paid, you need to convince others that you have what it takes.
Some people may disagree but I think CFA is a good start, to except if you want to get into IB. They don’t care. You might find a lone MD or VP or someone who has one that might care a very small amount. But that’s okay because the CFA isn’t a big deal in the grand scheme of the jobs you listed. There are people who work in ER and IB who pass those exams in succession so you should be a cakewalk for you.
I’d apply everywhere but I think if you break in, it will be at a very small firm first. Not saying you shouldn’t apply to the big names though.