the CFA text book state that depreciation expense is included in COGS and/or SG&A, i thought depreciation is treated as a separate/individula item, instead of including in COGS, in Income Statement. is it true?
also, it says higher depreciation expense in COGS lower gross margin and operating expenses, but doesn’t affect operating margin. if higher depreciation expense increases COGS, which results in lowers the gross profit (revenue - COGS) and hence lower gross margin. however shouldn’t operating expenses be higher? let’s assume operating expenses are lower, revenue stays the same, operating income is lower, which leads to lower operating margin. am i missing something here? please help explaining what i am missing here. thanks.