As much as I’ve tried studying it, hypothesis testing has never made intuitive sense to me. How does one reject the null hypothesis? Is this when the test statistic is outside the range of critical values (in a two tail) or smaller than/larger than the null (in a one tail)? How does one create an effective decision rule? How are estimators involved? If someone can try to clarify this topic, I’d really appreciate it, thanks.

If the test stat is greater is outside the range of critical values, you reject the null. If it falls inside the range, you do not have a statistically signifcant reason to reject. I’d suggest going back to to texts of this… a bit too larger of a concept to post on… particularly 4 days from the test.