I have 2 questions on tax. Could anyone help? 1) For the charitable gift formula… FV(charitable gift) = [(1 + return(g))]^n + T(oi) * [1 + return(e) * [1 - T(ie)]]^n * (1 - Te) Who receive the 1st term ((1 + return(g))]^n)? charity organization or future beneficiaries (e.g. his son) ?? Who receive the 2nd term (T(oi) * [1 + return(e) * [1 - T(ie)]]^n * (1 - Te) ) ? future beneficiaries (e.g. son)?? 2) For Spousal Exemption The textbook (P.243, Vo.2) say it is advisable to take adv of the first exclusion when first spouse dies by transferring exclusion amt to someone other than spouse. What’s that mean ?