R10 EOC qn 34: Currency Management Rosario Delgado item set

Can somebody please assist to review the solution appended below the question? I think they mixed the currency conversion around.


Rosario Delgado is an investment manager in Spain. Delgado’s client, Max Rivera, seeks assistance with his well-diversified investment portfolio denominated in US dollars.

Rivera’s reporting currency is the euro, and he is concerned about his US dollar exposure. His portfolio IPS requires monthly rebalancing, at a minimum. The portfolio’s market value is USD2.5 million. Given Rivera’s risk aversion, Delgado is considering a monthly hedge using either a one-month forward contract or one-month futures contract.

Assume Rivera’s portfolio was perfectly hedged. It is now time to rebalance the portfolio and roll the currency hedge forward one month. The relevant data for rebalancing are provided in Exhibit 1.

Exhibit 1

One Month Ago Today
Portfolio value of assets (USD) 2,500,000 2,650,000
EUR/USD spot rate (bid–offer) 0.8913/0.8914 0.8875/0.8876
One-month forward points (bid–offer) 25/30 20/25

Q. Calculate the net cash flow (in euros) to maintain the desired hedge. Show your calculations.


When hedging one month ago, Delgado would have sold USD2,500,000 one month forward against the euro. Now, with the US dollar-denominated portfolio increasing in value to USD2,650,000, a mismatched FX swap is needed to settle the initial expiring forward contract and establish a new hedge given the higher market value of the US dollar-denominated portfolio. To calculate the net cash flow (in euros) to maintain the desired hedge, the following steps are necessary:

  1. Buy USD2,500,000 at the spot rate. Therefore, the bid side of the market must be used to calculate the outflow in euros.USD2,500,000 × 0.8875 = EUR2,218,750.
  1. Sell USD2,650,000 at the spot rate adjusted for the one-month forward points (all-in forward rate). Therefore, the offer side of the market must be used to calculate the inflow in euros.All-in forward rate = 0.8876 + (25/10,000) = 0.8901. USD2,650,000 × 0.8901 = EUR2,358,765.
  1. Therefore, the net cash flow is equal to EUR2,358,765 – EUR2,218,750, which is equal to EUR140,015.

Check the errata: https://www.cfainstitute.org/-/media/documents/support/programs/cfa/2022-cfa-level-iii-errata.pdf

1 Like

Oh yes. I had the slightly old errata. They are updating it quite frequently.

Thanks again.

Thanks, S2000magician.

However, I still don’t understand why selling 2.65M forward produces a cash flow today.

My answer would be the following:

  1. On one hand, you need to buy 2.5M USD to cover the original USD short position. That would cost you 2.5M / 0.8875 = 2,816,901.41 EUR.

  2. On the other hand, you’d receive the EUR from the original fwd contract. Namely, 1 month ago the agreed rate was 0.8913 + 25 points = 0.8938, and hence the EUR received would be 2.5M / 0.8938 = 2,797,046.32 EUR.

  3. The net cash flow would be +2,797,046.32 EUR - 2,816,901.41 EUR = -19,855.09 EUR.

Where am I erring?

It doesn’t.

Could you please also answer my question from my original post?

You’re dividing USD 2.5 million by 0.8875; you should be multiplying it by 0.8875. Similarly with 0.8938.

It appears that you’re reading the currency quotes backward; in the CFA world, EUR/USD 0.8875 means that EUR 0.8875 = USD 1.0, not the other way round.

Thanks. The quoted rate is USD/EUR and not EUR/USD though.

So the quotes in the original post were backward.

Their answer is incorrect. You’re buying and selling USD 2.5 million, not selling USD 2.65 million.

You should submit an erratum to CFA Institute; here’s their form.

So using the correct bid/ask quote
From the old forward:
get EUR +2500K / (0.8914 + 0.0030) = 2795.2K
buy USD with -2500K /0.8876 = -2816.6K EUR

The new forward requires 0 cashflow today

So net cashflow today = -21.4K EUR?