I have read both Schweser and CFAI text and just wanted to make sure I have got it right: DB Plans: - For a fully funded pension plan, the return requirement begins with the discount rate used to calculate the PV of plan liabilities. Return desire may be higher than its requirements. - Objective maybe to minimize amount of future penion contributions - If the plan has a young and growing workforce, the sponsor may set a more aggressive return objective - Pension plan may manage investments for the active-lives portion of pension liabilities which are different for retired lives (so it may be possible to have two separate return objectives?) Foundations: - For foundations with infinite time horizon, LT return objective is to preserve the real value of investment assets while allowing spending. - With 5% annual spending min and 0.4% management fee and 3% inflation, Minimum return requirement is 8.4% Endowments: - High return objectives, reflecting goal of providing a significant, stable and sustainable flow of income to operations. - An endowment must keep its LT average spending rate below its long term expected real return - due to volatility - A low volatility, low return portfolio increases the risk of an endowment failing to meet its objectives. - An endowment must coordinate its spending and investment policies. Did I miss anything worthwhile above? I noticed that return volatility is mentioned pretty clearly as it relates to endowments, but not emphasized for Foundations and DB plans. Is it a concern for these entities as well?