Turns out coin tosses are not 50/50

It’s more like 51/49 on average. The side that starts facing up has an advantage, the coin spends more time in that state.


but how do you determine which side faces up? that’s a coin toss too no? theoretically, its 50%…in actuality, it may not be…

No, you have to do a pre-pre-coin toss to determine which side is up. That’s the only way.