I always recommend Texas Instruments BA II Plus (or professional), easy to learn (huge number of videos are available) and easy to use. And yes you can solve 12*(1+0.05)^2 / (5*(1+0.01)^3*8) directly in BA II Plus.

“Can I type this formula verbatim in on one line and then press enter”, then the answer is NO

If you are asking “Can a calculator compute this” then the answer is yes, but you need to learn how to use it. HP12C can do this in fewer keysrtokes but you need to learn how to use RPN to get the benefit of that. That might not be the best use of your time at this stage unless you can get the hang of it pretty quickly.

BTW, you need to be careful about your order of precedence. Do you mean

Not that this is using RPN notation. Newer HPs also allow normal algebraeic entry but I don’t know if anyone gets the HP and doesn’t use the RPN, you might as well just get the cheaper TI as do that. However you do not need brackets and can do most calculations without storing intermediate answers explicitly